Bamboo curtain and poplar veneers, which are used as decorative building materials, were impregnated using two types of fire retardants (A and B) at atmospheric pressure in order to investigate fire retardancy using a cone calorimeter. When the impregnation time was longer, the fire retardancy was enhanced in the decorative material samples. When poplar veneer was treated by fire retardant A with impregnation times of 8 h, 16 h, and 24 h, the peak of heat rate release (pk-HRR) decreased by 41%, 51%, and 50%; the total heat release (THR) values decreased by 61%, 69%, and 75%; the total suspended particulates (TSP) values decreased by 90%, 82%, and 72%; and mass residues increased by 39%, 41%, and 43%, respectively. Treated bamboo curtain veneer had a lower fire retardancy when compared to poplar veneer. When bamboo curtain impregnation times were 8 h, 16 h, and 24 h, their pk-HRR values decreased by 37%, 45%, and 51%; the THR values decreased by 32%, 39%, and 44%; the TSP values decreased by 69%, 57%, and 78%; and the mass residues increased by 26%, 28%, and 29%, respectively. The results from this research should help to develop bamboo curtain veneer as an indoor decorative material.