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Basso, M. C., Lagel, M.-C., Pizzi, A., Celzard, A., and Abdalla, S. (2015). "First tools for tannin-furanic foams design," BioRes. 10(3), 5233-5241.

Abstract

Formaldehyde-free quebracho tannin foams were prepared for the first time. Several simple formulations have been presented in order to study the capital influence of each component on foaming and therefore on the characteristics of the obtained foams. Incorporation of a non-ionic surfactant leads to smaller cells and a more homogeneous cell size distribution. Cross-linking agents improve the mechanical properties of foams. A combination of different catalysts allows control of the ratio between the expansion/hardening processes. The understanding of the roles and interactions of the different components of formulation make possible the design of tannin foams having specific properties.
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