NC State
Zakaria, S., Ahmadzadeh, A., and Roslan, R. (2013). "Flow properties of novolak-type resin made from liquefaction of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibres using sulfuric acid as a catalyst," BioRes. 8(4), 5884-5894.


Novolak-type resins were produced via liquefaction of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibres with various liquefaction and resinification parameters such as temperature, time, catalyst concentration, and phenol-to-EFB ratios, and investigated in terms of flow properties (melt viscosity and melt flow rate) of the phenolated EFB (PEFB) and resinified PEFB (RPEFB). The results showed that the phenol/EFB ratio was the most effectual parameter in the variation of melt viscosity and melt flow rate (MFR) of PEFB. The melt flow rate of the PEFB was tremendously lower than that of the commercial novolak resin. The results showed that the activation energy for flow, which was obtained using the Arrhenius equation, increased when the liquefaction temperature increased. The results also demonstrated that the molten PEFB showed a shear thinning or pseudo-plastic behavior.
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