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Hu, D., Wang, P., Li, J., and Wang, L. (2014). "Functionalization of microcrystalline cellulose with N,N-dimethyldodecylamine for the removal of Congo Red dye from an aqueous solution," BioRes. 9(4), 5951-5962.


Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was functionalized with quaternary amine groups for use as an adsorbent to remove Congo Red dye (CR) from aqueous solution. The ultrasonic pretreatment of MCC was investigated during its functionalization. Characterization was conducted using infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The batch adsorption of the functionalized MCC was studied to evaluate the effects of dye concentration, pH of solution, temperature, and NaCl concentration on the adsorption CR. The adsorbent (FM-1) obtained using ultrasonic pretreatment of MCC under 10.8 kJ•g-1 exhibited an adsorption capacity of 304 mg•g-1 at initial pH under a dose of 0.1 g•L-1 and initial concentration of 80 mg•L-1. After functionalization, the FT-IR and XPS results indicated that the quaternary amine group was successfully grafted onto the cellulose, the surface was transformed to be coarse and porous, and the crystalline structure of the original cellulose was disrupted. FM-1 has been shown to be a promising and efficient adsorbent for the removal of CR from an aqueous solution.
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