Graphene oxide (GO) was used as a catalyst support and for regeneration of a homogeneous catalyst in the catalytic conversion of glucose to lactic acid (LA). First, a solid base catalyst was prepared through the adsorption of Pb2+ ions by GO through ionic interaction with oxygenated groups of GO. The collected GO-Pb catalyst was characterized, demonstrating the successful loading of Pb2+ onto GO sheets using FTIR and XPS. The GO-Pb catalyst was subsequently used for the conversion of glucose into LA. A maximum LA yield of approximately 30% was achieved in 30 min. The catalyst demonstrated the ability to be used for at least five cycles. In contrast, the leached Pb2+ ions during the hydrothermal process were regenerated through adsorption with fresh GO. The regenerated catalyst demonstrated the possibility of the regenerated Pb2+ ions for further catalytic conversions of lactic acid. This study could be essential to produce valuable chemicals through the use of heterogeneous catalysts that are produced via a simple and environmental benign process.