Graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized from graphite and also produced from waste materials, such as coconut shell, rice husk, and bagasse. The GO obtained from pure graphite was compared with graphite made from Indonesian biomass (coconut shell, rice husk, and bagasse) that had its silica content removed. The characterization of GO was with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The XRD images showed the formation of the GO and graphite from various angles and revealed that the chemical reaction had an important role in the formation of the GO particles. This was confirmed by the FTIR and Raman spectra, where the presence of various oxygen functional groups was identified. The FTIR spectra showed that the GO had some functionals oxygen groups within its structure.