AbstractStarch microparticles (SM) were prepared by delivering ethanol as the precipitant into a starch paste solution dropwise. Chemically modified starch microparticles (CSM) were fabricated by a reaction with malic acid using the dry-preparation technique. Composites were prepared using CSM and various cellulose materials as fillers within glycerol plasticized–corn starch matrix through the casting process. Microcrystalline cellulose (MC, as reference filler) and two cellulose-enriched materials, namely Asclepias syriaca L. seed hairs (ASSH) and Populus alba L. seed hairs (PSH), were compared in terms of morphology and performance when incorporated within the CSM/S thermoplastic matrix. The effects of cellulose fillers on the morphology, surface, water sorption, and mechanical properties were investigated. The surface water resistance of composite materials was slightly improved through addition of cellulose fillers. Samples containing cellulose fillers presented higher tensile strength but lower elongation values compared with those without fillers.