AbstractHydrophobically modified celluloses were prepared by the esterification of monocarboxycellulose (MCC) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) with methanol, followed by the amino-de-alkoxylation of the methyl esters with n-octadecylamine. These cellulose derivatives were fed at 30 and 60 g/kg for 4 weeks to female rats. The diets were supplemented with palm fat (60 or 50 g/kg) and cholesterol (0 or 10 g/kg). There was no significant effect of amidated celluloses on the feed intake or body weight of rats. Both MCC and CMC derivatives significantly decreased the concentrations of cholesterol present in the serum and liver. The supplementation of diets with hydrophobically modified celluloses tended to increase fecal concentrations of cholesterol and coprostanol and significantly increased fecal concentrations of total neutral sterols. In rats fed diets containing cholesterol, the total serum cholesterol correlated negatively with the fecal concentrations of neutral sterols. It can be concluded that MCC-C18 and CMC-C18 are effective cholesterol-lowering agents.