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Winarni, I., Oikawa, C., Yamada, T., Igarashi, K., Koda, K., and Uraki, Y. (2013). "Improvement of enzymatic saccharification of unbleached cedar pulp with amphipathic lignin derivatives," BioRes. 8(2), 2195-2208.


Synthesized amphipathic lignin derivatives comprised of acidic acid lignin (AL) with poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEGDE), ethoxy-(2-hydroxy)-propoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) glycidyl ether (EPEG) or dodecyloxy-poly(ethylene glycol) glycidyl ether (DAEO) were added before the enzymatic saccharification of unbleached cedar pulp along with two commercially available cellulases, Meicelase and Genencor GC220. At the same filter paper unit (FPU) dosage, GC220 showed higher sugar yield than Meicelase. The difference was attributed to the composition of processive and non-processive endoglucanase activities per FPU; GC220 had higher such activities than Meicelase. The sugar yield was significantly improved by the addition of the lignin derivatives. In addition, residual activities after the saccharification were maintained at the higher level by their addition than with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000. In particular, EPEG-AL yielded the complete recovery of cellulase activity when using 20 FPU/g of substrate. It was found that the lignin derivatives were directly associated with Cel6A, one of cellulase components, whereas PEG 4000 was not. Thus, it is evident that the lignin derivatives are promising agents to improve the enzymatic saccharification of cellulase.
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