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Lourenço, A. F., Gamelas, J. A. F., Sequeira, J., Ferreira, P. J., and Velho, J. L. (2015). "Improving paper mechanical properties using silica-modified ground calcium carbonate as filler," BioRes. 10(4), 8312-8324.

Abstract

The ability to increase the filler content of paper without significantly sacrificing its mechanical strength is of high interest for papermakers. In this work, three samples of ground calcium carbonate (GCC), differing in size and in brightness, modified with silica via the sol-gel method, were used as fillers in papermaking. Handsheets were produced using a eucalyptus kraft pulp furnish and with a filler amount near 20%. It was found that not only were the strength properties of the handsheets produced with the modified GCCs always significantly better than those obtained with the unmodified GCCs (e.g., the tensile index exhibited improvements of 16 to 20%), but bulk also was increased (by 7 to 13%). Some decreases in the light scattering and opacity values were noted when using the modified GCC, but the brightness was roughly the same. The enhanced fiber-to-filler bonding may be attributed to the hydrogen bonding between the cellulosic fibers and the hydroxyl groups of the silica coating the calcium carbonate particles.
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