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BioResources
Shen, J., Zhou, X., Wu, W., and Ma, Y. (2012). "Improving paper strength by gelation of native starch and borax in the presence of fibers," BioRes. 7(4), 5542-5551.

Abstract

This paper puts forward a novel non-ionic augmentation system, namely, gelation of native starch in the presence of borax and papermaking fibers. Native starch was blended with high concentration pulp and auxiliary agents. After pasting, the starch gel adhered onto fiber surfaces. However, an excess dosage of agents led to a rigid structure and poor gel strength. Starch became gelatinized and then cross-linked by borax and cured as an adhesive layer through the process of pressing and drying under a high temperature. This provided close and uniform contact between starch and fibers. As a result, the strength of the paper was increased after forming.
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