AbstractBoth non-destructive and semi-destructive tests can potentially be very efficient methods for the assessment of structural timber density. This paper describes an investigation into the suitability of three techniques: core drilling, probing, and screw withdrawal. It presents the results after testing 150 pieces of large cross-section (80 mm x 120 mm) structural timber of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don.) from a Spanish source. A strong correlation was found between specimen density and core drilling. Meanwhile, there was also a meaningful correlation with the screw withdrawal, and an acceptable correlation with probing. Even though differences were observed in their predictive capacity, none of these procedures should be rejected as a way of estimating density, as each has its own respective advantages and limitations.