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Bigand, V., Pinel, C., Da Silva Perez, D., Rataboul, F., Petit-Conil, M., and Huber, P. (2013). "Influence of liquid or solid phase preparation of cationic hemicelluloses on physical properties of paper," BioRes. 8(2), 2118-2134.


Cationizations of galactomannan- and xylan-type hemicelluloses were performed in a solid state, with 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (ETA) as the cationic reagent under alkaline conditions. By this method, the reaction efficiency was significantly increased for all hemicellulose types, up to 90% in the case of xylan. The consumption of reagents was reduced by a factor of ten when compared to the reaction in liquid phase, while comparable values of the degree of substitution (DS) were obtained. By reducing the number of purification steps, the consumption of solvents was limited, and high mass yields were preserved. By all aspects, this method constitutes an economical and environmental gain for the cationization reaction of hemicelluloses. Native hemicelluloses and their cationic derivatives were tested as additives to the pulp slurry in order to increase the dry strength of the paper formed. The cationization of hemicelluloses had a beneficial effect on the mechanical properties of paper, with a supplementary gain of properties compared to the unmodified polysaccharides. Cationic derivatives of a DS 0.3 gave the best results for both polysaccharides, with the galactomannan-type being more efficient than the xylan-type with a 90% increase of the burst index.
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