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Ruponen, J., Čermák, P., Rhême, M., Miettinen, A., Rohumaa, A., and Rautkari, L. (2015). "Influence of welding time on tensile-shear strength of linear friction welded birch (Betula pendula L.) wood," BioRes. 10(2), 3481-3491.

Abstract

The purpose of this work was to determine the optimal welding time for linear friction welding of birch (Betula pendula L.) wood while keeping the other parameters constant and at similar levels compared to other species in a similar density range. Specimens with dimensions of 20 × 5 × 150 mm3 were welded together, and the influence of welding time (2.5, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0 s) on the mechanical properties of the specimens was determined. The studies included a tensile-shear strength test as well as visual estimation of wood failure percentage (WFP). Additionally, X-ray microtomographic imaging was used to investigate and characterise the bond line properties as a non-destructive testing method. The highest mean tensile-shear strength, 7.9 MPa, was reached with a welding time of 3.5 s. Generally, all four result groups showed high, yet decreasing proportional standard deviations as the welding time increased. X-ray microtomographic images and analysis express the heterogeneity of the weld line clearly as well. According to the averaged group-wise results, WFP and tensile-shear strength correlated positively with an R2 of 0.93. An extrapolation of WFP to 65% totals a tensile-shear strength of 10.6 MPa, corresponding to four common adhesive bonds determined for beech.
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