NC State
Liu, Y., Gao, J., Guo, H., Pan, Y., Zhou, C., Cheng, Q., and Via, B. K. (2015). "Interfacial properties of loblolly pine bonded with epoxy/wood pyrolysis bio-oil blended system," BioRes. 10(1), 638-646.


The bonding interface of loblolly pine veneers cured with epoxy/wood pyrolysis bio-oil resins was studied. The shear strength of the adhered strands was calculated to examine the effect of bio-oil addition on epoxy resin performance. The chemical structure, curing behavior, and microstructure were investigated to analyze the interaction between wood substrate and resins. Results showed that the strength of pine wood-resin joints gradually decreased as more bio-oil was added. However, this effect was not apparent when the substitution rate was lower than 30%. ATR-FTIR analysis confirmed that complex chemical reactions take place between wood constituents and epoxy/bio-oil resins involved in the cross-linking at the interface. The reaction degree of -OH and C-O-C functional groups plays a key role in regulating the bonding stress of the wood bond line. The addition of bio-oil accelerated the polycondensation cross-linking process, resulting in a decreased cure temperature. SEM and optical microscopy showed that the epoxy/bio-oil resin formed gel nails in the pit and tracheid gaps, leading to the closing of the capillaries of the wood’s cell walls and the colloidal interface extending into the timber micro-capillary system.
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