NC State
Bianchini, R., Catelani, G., Frino, E., Isaad, J., and Rolla, M. (2007). "Lactose to naturalize textile dyes," BioRes. 2(4), 630-637.


Many natural dyes, for example carminic acid, are soluble in water. We present a simple strategy to naturalize synthetic azadyes through their linkage with lactose to induce their water solubility. The dyeing process of textile fibres then becomes possible in water without additives such as surfactants and mordants, which result in products that are difficult to eliminate. Glyco-azadyes (GADs) we are presenting here are obtained through a diether linker to bond the azadye and the sugar. Tinctorial tests were carried out with fabrics containing wool, polyester, cotton, nylon, and acetate. GADs were found to be multipurpose and capable of dyeing many fabrics efficiently under mild conditions.
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