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Ghorbani, M., Liebner, F., van Herwijnen, H. W. G., Pfungen, L., Krahofer, M., Budjav, E., and Konnerth, J. (2016). "Lignin phenol formaldehyde resoles: The impact of lignin type on adhesive properties," BioRes. 11(3), 6727-6741.


Lignin-phenol-formaldehyde (LPF) resoles were prepared using different types of lignin at various levels of phenol replacement by lignin (0 to 40 wt.%). Adhesive properties including thermal behavior as determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), time-dependent development of bond strength during hot pressing as determined by automated bonding evaluation system (ABES), tensile shear strength of solid beech wood lap-joints, and free formaldehyde content of the adhesives were investigated. Preparation of phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resole was accomplished using molar ratios of formaldehyde/phenol and NaOH/phenol of 2.5 and 0.3, respectively. Four different types of technical lignins were studied: Sarkanda grass soda lignin, wheat straw soda lignin, pine kraft lignin, and beech organosolv lignin. The synthesis of the resoles was optimized for 20 and 40 wt.% phenol replacement by lignin. Increasing substitution of phenol resulted in faster gain of LPF viscosity for all studied lignins. The best curing performances of the LPF resoles were observed for pine kraft lignin at both 20 and 40% phenol replacement. The amount of formaldehyde not consumed during cooking increased with increasing level of phenol replacement. However, no differences in free formaldehyde content were observed between the different lignin samples at comparable levels of phenol replacement.

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