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Mou, H.-Y., Li, B., Heikkilä, E., Iamazaki, E., Zhan, H.-Y., and Fardim, P. (2013). "Low consistency refining of eucalyptus pulp: Effects on surface chemistry and interaction with FWAs," BioRes. 8(4), 5995-6013.


the combination of increased specific surface area, electrostatic forces, and hydrophobic interactions, thus compensating for the loss of optical properties resulting from LC refining. The mechanical hydraulic force generated by the high refining energy disturbed the FWA retention. Therefore, high refining energy could improve the adsorption of FWAs when they are added after refining, but for better performance, the refining energy should be controlled and lowered. In addition, small amounts of calcium salt added after refining can also ameliorate the adsorption of FWAs.
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