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Vila, C., Santos, V., Saake, B., and Parajó, J. C. (2016). "Manufacture, characterization, and properties of poly-(lactic acid) and its blends with esterified pine lignin," BioRes. 11(2), 5322-5332.


Pinus pinaster wood was pulped in ethanol/water medium catalyzed with sulfuric acid, and lignin was recovered from the liquid phase by precipitation upon water addition. Lignin samples were characterized for composition and thermal properties. Lignin samples were reacted with selected esterification agents (butyric, isobutyric, or crotonic anhydrides) under experimental conditions leading to extensive conversion of the available hydroxyl groups, and the esterified lignins were assessed for composition and thermal properties. Samples made up of crude polylactic acid or its blends with lignins (raw or esterified) were assayed for mechanical properties. The blends of polylactic acid with lignin modified with butyric anhydride presented higher Young’s modulus and elongation at break than neat polylactic acid.
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