Mechanical properties of wood were evaluated using nondestructive test methods. The tests were conducted using the stress wave timing and resistance drilling machine, while static mechanical tests were conducted by an Instron universal testing machine. Both nondestructive and static mechanical tests were performed on wood specimens for Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) and elm (Ulmus rubra). There were strong linear correlations between density (ρ) and resistance amplitude (F), static modulus of elasticity (MOE) and dynamic modulus of elasticity (ED), modulus of rupture (MOR) and ED, and ultimate compressive strength (UCS) and ED. Additionally, an algorithm of the reliability index was developed with the first-order second-moment method. The reliability analysis indicated that the reliability index increased with the decreased design value for both Chinese fir and elm, but it increased as the live-to-dead load ratio (ρ) increased. To achieve the reliability index requirements of the Chinese national code, the MOR design value should be set to 12.6 and 21.7 MPa, while the UCS design value should be set to 10.2 and 13.4 MPa for Chinese fir and elm, respectively.