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BioResources
Mengeloglu, F., and Karakuş, K. (2012). "Mechanical properties of injection-molded foamed wheat straw filled HDPE biocomposites: The effects of filler loading and coupling agent contents," BioRes. 7(3), 3293-3305.

Abstract

This study investigated the effect of filler loading and coupling agent contents on the densities and mechanical properties of injection-molded foamed biocomposites. Biocomposite pellets were manufactured using wheat straw flour, maleic anhydrite grafted polyethylene (MAPE), paraffin wax, and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with an extrusion process. Pellets and the chemical foaming agent (azodicarbonamide) were dry-mixed and foamed in an injection-molding machine. Densities and mechanical properties of the foamed biocomposites samples were measured and analyzed using central composite design (CCD). The results showed that both filler loading and coupling agent contents affected the density and mechanical properties of foamed biocomposites. Densities in the range of 0.57 to 0.81 gr cm-3 were achieved. Best results were obtained when less than 20% wheat straw flour and 1% coupling agent content were used. The flexural modulus and tensile modulus of foamed biocomposites were improved with increasing filler loading. However, flexural strength, tensile strength, elongation at break, and impact strength values were diminished. The tensile strength of the biocomposites was positively affected by CA contents, but other mechanical properties were not affected by it. Overall, injection molded foamed biocomposites with moderate mechanical properties were produced.
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