AbstractThe differential expression of metabolites in wood-forming tissue in response to abiotic stresses might regulate or decide the cell wall contents and architecture via multiple pathways or networks. In order to determine whether such chemical modifications were associated with compression wood formation in a Pinus koraiensis sapling stem, polar metabolites were identified by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and their major chemical components were measured. Varieties and abundances of metabolites were significantly affected by the number of days during which the saplings were bent into an inclined position. Polysaccharides like glucose, fructose, and glucopyranoside sharply decreased in treated stems, and simultaneously, some compounds related to biological resistance increased. This indicated that the monomer content showed changes in polymer synthesis. However, major metabolites clearly showed changes at an stage of stress application but were not obvious at later stages. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), cellulose crystallinity, and quantitative analysis of lignin showed similar variation patterns at different inclined times, but no consistent relationship.