NC State
Mahathaninwong, N., Chucheep, T., Karrila, S., Songmuang, W., Rodsang, N., and Limhengha, S. (2021). "Morphology and properties of agarwood-waste-filled natural rubber latex foam," BioResources 16(1), 176-189.


Agarwood (Aquilaria crassna) (ACW) waste is widely available as a by-product of agarwood essential oil production. In this study, ACW waste was ball milled into ACW powder (passed through 120 mesh) and used as filler in natural rubber latex foam (NRLF) prepared by the Dunlop method. The effects of the ACW filler on cell morphology and properties of the NRLF were determined. It was found that the ACW filler loading affected cell morphology of the NRLF. The cell size of the ACW-filled NRLF increased with ACW loadings of 1.5 parts per hundred parts of latex (phr) and 2.5 phr, compared with that of control NRLF. A bimodal cell size distribution (with large and small cells) was dominant in the ACW-filled NRLF at loadings of 3.5 phr, 4.5 phr, 5.5 phr, and 6.5 phr. The cell walls also became thicker, causing inferior compression set behavior. In addition, the density and hardness of the ACW-filled NRLF increased with ACW filler loading.

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