NC State
Zhai, R., Chi, F., and Zhou, X. (2016). "NaOH-thiourea aqueous solution treatment of cellulose fiber and its effects on bulk and softness," BioRes. 11(4), 8703-8719.


Bleached kraft pulp of hardwood was pretreated in a NaOH-thiourea aqueous solution to modify the bulk and softness of the cellulose fibers with minimal reduction in paper strength. The effects of soaking time, fiber concentration, alkali dosage, and freezing time were evaluated through single factor experiments. The optimal conditions were determined to be a soaking time of 15 min, fiber concentration of 15%, alkali dosage of 9%, and freezing time of 75 min. Under the optimal conditions, the bulk and softness of the treated cellulose fibers were increased by 28.7% and 21.6%, respectively, compared with those of untreated cellulose fibers. The tensile and burst indices were only reduced by 1.2% and 5.1%, respectively, under these conditions. Also, there were almost no effects on the polymerization degree, the thermostability, and the structure of the functional groups or crystalline regions.

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