The dissolution rates of the chemical compositions of alcohol-benzene extractables (ABE), holocellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in wheat straw (WS) under different pretreatment conditions were investigated. The individual and interactive effects of three independent parameters, namely, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) dosage (x1: 8 wt.% to 12 wt.%), sodium sulfide (Na2S) dosage (x2: 10 wt.% to 18 wt.%), and time to maximum temperature (x3: 100 min to 140 min) on screened yield, Kappa number, and brightness of wheat straw pulp (WSP) were analyzed via response surface methodology (RSM). The results suggested that the quadratic equations were in good agreement with the experimental figures in the present work. The relative errors of verification results were less than 5%, which indicated that the selected model for explaining the relationship between the variables and the responses was correct. In addition, the relationships between the screened yield, reject yield, brightness, and Kappa number were described and explained. Wheat straw pulpability was optimized in this study via RSM.