AbstractThe interactive effect of the thermo-mechanical densification and heat treatment on the set-recovery of modified wood were investigated for optimizing the combined modification process in this study. Process parameters such as thermo-mechanical densification temperature, duration of densification, and heat treatment temperature were selected as main factors; three levels of each of these factors were chosen, and then nine experiments plus one verification experiment were conducted according to the principles of the Taguchi DoE method and the results of ANOVA analysis. It was observed that the dimensional stability of combined modified Chinese fir wood in the compression direction can be effectively improved by elevating the heat treatment temperature and densification temperature, the percentage contributions of which were 76.04% and 21.18%, respectively. Meanwhile the set-recovery had no dependence on the duration of the densification process. The value of the set-recovery in the verification experiment agreed quite well with the predictions. From an economic view, the optimal condition for the combination modification of Chinese fir wood was that of a densification temperature of 170 °C, densification duration of 10 min, and heat treatment temperature of 200 °C.