AbstractIn this research, sugarcane bagasse cellulose, an abundant non-wood plant fibrous raw material from Guangxi, was the substrate, stearyl methacrylate was the monomer, and ammonium persulfate was the initiator used to prepare an economical environmental oil biosorbent named sugarcane bagasse cellulose-graft-polystearylmethacrylate (SBC-g-PSMA), which can be obtained through homogeneous graft copolymerization in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl). Confirmation of successful synthesis was rendered using various analytical tools, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Furthermore, the effects of various reaction parameters on the sorption capacity were all evaluated. Optimum conditions for the synthesis process were obtained as follows: the mass ratio of the monomer to sugarcane bagasse cellulose was 4:1, and the initiator to sugarcane bagasse cellulose ratio was 1:10, with a reaction time of 2 h. Under the optimum conditions, the maximum sorption capacities of the SBC-g-PSMA for 0.2 wt% hydrocarbon (benzene, kerosene, and diesel) were 10.24 g/g, 9.76 g/g, and 9.74 g/g, respectively. The SBC-g-PSMA was light and hydrophobic. It is a selective oil absorption material, so it holds promise to be applied in the treatment of low concentration oily wastewater.