The anatomical structure and chemical composition of the stem-wall material of giant reed is considered from the viewpoint of raw material characterization for industrial fiber production. The effect of stem morphology (nodes and internodes) on pulping results and general pulp properties is discussed. The advantages of application of modern organic solvent based (organosolv) pulping technologies to giant reed are shown in comparison with the conventional (kraft) method. The conditions optimization for Ethanol-Alkali pulping (a selected organosolv pulping process) is given, and the chemical kinetics of the principal macromolecular components during ethanol-alkali pulping is described. The bleachability of organosolv pulps by short totally chlorine free (TCF) bleaching sequences using hydrogen peroxide and ozone as the active bleaching chemicals without pulp pre-delignification is examined and compared with kraft pulps. The enzymatic pre-treatment of reed organosolv pulps by commercial xylanase preparation is considered as a possibility toward the improvement of pulp bleachability.