NC State
Wu, N., Hubbe, M. A., Rojas, O. J., and Park, S. (2009). "Permeation of polyelectrolytes and other solutes into the pore spaces of water-swollen cellulose: A review," BioRes. 4(3), 1222-1262.


The rate and extent of transport of macromolecules and other solutes into cellulosic materials and fibers have important applications in such fields as papermaking, textiles, medicine, and chromatography. This review considers how diffusion and flow affect permeation into wood, paper, and other lignocellulosic materials. Because pore sizes within such materials can range from nanometers to millimeters, a broad perspective will be used, also considering some publications related to other porous materials. Factors that limit the rate or extent of polymer or other solute transport into pores can involve thermodynamics (affecting the driving motivation for permeation), kinetics (if there is insufficient time for the system to come to equilibrium), and physical barriers. Molecular flow is also affected by the attributes of the solute, such as molecular mass and charge, as well as those of the substrate, such as the pore size, interconnectedness, restricted areas, and surface characteristics. Published articles have helped to clarify which of these factors may have a controlling influence on molecular transport in different situations.
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