AbstractPhysical, mechanical, and thermal properties of wood flour reinforced ungrafted and maleic anhydride grafted unsaturated polyester biocomposites were investigated. Composites were prepared using a Resin Transfer Moulding technique by varying wood flour loading (10, 15, 20, and 25 wt%) for both ungrafted and maleic anhydride grafted unsaturated polyester. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis was utilized to study physical properties. Tensile and flexural tests were conducted for mechanical characterization, while thermal properties were evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). FTIR and SEM results confirmed the presence of grafting onto the unsaturated polyester. The flexural strength and modulus of the composites were increased up to 20% filler loading, after which those values decreased, whereas, the tensile strength and Young’s modulus values increased only up to 15% filler loading. Maleic anhydride grafted composites had better mechanical properties compared to ungrafted composites. According to TGA results, maleic anhydride grafted composites showed enhanced thermal stability at the final decomposition stage.