The utilization of branchwood as lignocellulosic raw material source for paper production may have the potential of solving the problem of the availability of raw material in the pulp and paper industry. This study therefore compared the chemical composition and fiber morphological indices (according to Franklin’s method) of stemwood and branchwood in Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Pinus halepensis trees grown in Egypt. The statistical analysis showed a significant effect of species, wood type (stem and branchwood), and their interaction on the measured chemical constituents and fiber morphological indices at 0.05 significance level. In both genera, the stemwood exhibited a higher percentage of cellulose and hemicellulose and was lower in lignin, total extractives, and ash than those measured in branchwood. Also in both genera, the stemwood was higher in fiber length, Runkel ratio, rigidity coefficient, Muhlsteph ratio, and Luce’s shape factor, and lower in basic density and flexibility coefficient than those in branchwood. Based on the chemical analysis and the fiber morphological indices, the stemwood and branchwood of both species were suitable for paper production with various qualities. Moreover, good correlations were found in both stem and branchwood between the basic density and the fiber wall thickness and fiber lumen diameter. ln contrast, there was an independent association between the stemwood basic density and the fiber length, and this relationship in branchwood was positive for both genera.