NC State
Kudahettige-Nilsson, R., Ullsten, H., and Henriksson, G. (2018). "Plastic composites made from glycerol, citric acid, and forest components," BioRes. 13(3), 6600-6612.


An ecofriendly approach for the synthesis of plastic biomaterials based on renewable materials suitable for 3D printing application or other applications has been developed. The material was prepared from native (microcrystalline) or amorphous cellulose, citric acid, and glycerol or ethylene glycol, by a pretreatment at 40 °C and a curing at 175 °C for 1 h. The results showed that tensile properties and the water absorption level of the material were acceptable. The highest strain at break (14%) was obtained from materials made of 10% amorphous cellulose with 90% glycerol/citric acid. It had a maximum stress at 37 MPa. Moreover, materials were without ash content. Possible applications of the material in 3D-printers were discussed. In addition, application of mechanical pulp and wood powder into novel plastic material production was discussed. Foaming during curing might be a problem for this type of material, but this can be avoided by using amorphous cellulose in the recipe.

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