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Indarti, E., Roslan, R., Marwan., and Wan Daud, W. R. (2016). "Polylactic acid bionanocomposites filled with nanocrystalline cellulose from TEMPO-oxidized oil palm lignocellulosic biomass," BioRes. 11(4), 8615-8626.


Bionanocomposites from polylactic acid (PLA) filled with unmodified nanocrystalline cellulose from TEMPO-oxidized oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB-NCC) at various loading levels were fabricated using the solvent casting technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATF-FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and mechanical analyses were used to characterize the bionanocomposite films. FTIR suggested that the incorporation of the OPEFB-NCC was based on physical interaction. The melting temperature did not change markedly except at higher OPEFB-NCC additions, while the crystallization temperature shifted to lower temperatures and crystallinity increased with increasing OPEFB-NCC content.The SEM of cryo-fractured films indicated a rather weak compatibility between the OPEFB-NCC and PLA, resulting in the decrease of both the modulus and the tensile strength of the bionanocomposite.

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