In order to study the energy consumption of separation of pith and rind of corn stalk, a self-designed corn stalk separating unit was adopted in this work to measure the energy consumption by an electric power method. Four parameters—the rotational speed of pith-stripping, clearance between teeth and panel, feeding speed of stalk, and helix angle—were selected as influencing factors. By choosing the three indicators, effective specific energy (ESE), total specific energy (TSE), and energy utilization ratio (EUR) as evaluation indexes, response surface analysis was employed to obtain the influence law model of various experimental factors on evaluation indexes based on orthogonal tests. After all evaluation indexes, working efficiencies, and stalk scraping effects were taken into a comprehensive consideration, the working parameters of the core scraping mechanism were selected as follows: 840 r/min for the rotational speed of pith-stripping, 413 r/min for the feeding speed, 1.56 mm for the tooth-panel clearance, and 25° for the helix angle of scrapper blade. In this case, ESE, TSE, and EUR were 2.21 Wh·kg-1, 10.73 Wh·kg-1, and 22.29%, respectively. The results could be applied to the design and optimization of separation of pith and rind of corn stalk.