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Wei, W., Song, W., and Zhang, S. (2014). "Preparation and characterization of hydroxyapatite-poly(vinyl alcohol) composites reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals," BioRes. 9(4), 6087-6099.


Hydroxyapatite/poly(vinyl alcohol) (Hap/PVA) composites have been proposed as a promising biomaterial for use in articular cartilage repair. In this study, HAp/PVA composite gels reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) were prepared using the freeze/thaw method. The influence of CNC as a reinforcement on the structure of composite gels was investigated via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties and thermal stability of the composite gels were also studied. The FT-IR and XRD results indicated that the HAp/PVA/CNC composite gels were formed by hydrogen bonding. SEM morphology showed that the CNC served as an enhancement phase that interpenetrated the network of the HAp/PVA composite gels. The tensile strength and tensile modulus of the composites improved with increasing dosage of CNC. The thermal stability measurements indicated that the thermal stability of the HAp/PVA composites was slightly improved with the addition of the CNC.
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