NC State
BioResources
Chen, F., Xu, M., Wang, L., and Li, J. (2011). "Preparation and characterization of organic aerogels from a lignin - resourcinol - formaldehyde copolymer," BioRes. 6(2), 1262-1272.

Abstract

Lignin can be used as a cheap natural raw material to prepare organic aerogels based upon gelation and supercritical drying in ethanol. The aerogels were prepared from a mixture of the raw materials with lignin (L), resorcinol (R), and formaldehyde (F), followed by a reaction catalyzed by NaOH(C). The effect of the preparation conditions, such as the LRF concentration, the mass ratio of LR to NaOH (LR/C), the mole ratio of LR to F (LR/F), and the gelation temperature, on the gelation ability and the bulk density were studied. The results showed that the density of LRF aerogels increased with increasing reactant concentration and catalyst content. The microstructure of the porous carbon aerogels was investigated by SEM and TEM. The specific surface area and pore size distribution of LRF and RF aerogels were studied by nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis. The pore width of LRF aerogels ranged from 1 nm to 100 nm. Most of the pores were about 50 nm wide, as is typical for mesoporous materials.
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