NC State
El Mansouri, N., Yuan, Q., and Huang, F. (2018). "Preparation and characterization of phenol-formaldehyde resins modified with alkaline rice straw lignin," BioRes. 13(4), 8061-8075.


Phenol-formaldehyde (PF) is a thermosetting resin that is widely used in many fields. One of its important applications is as an adhesive for wood-based panels manufacturing. In this research work, modified phenol-formaldehyde resins were prepared using hydroxymethylated alkaline rice straw lignin as a substitute for petroleum-based phenol in the range of 20 to 50% by weight. The molar ratios of sodium hydroxide to phenol-modified alkaline lignin and the formaldehyde to phenol-modified alkaline lignin were from 1.0 to 1.4, and 1.8 to 2.6, respectively. The parameters used to characterize the modified phenol-formaldehyde resins were: free-formaldehyde, gel time, viscosity, pH, and solid content. The structural differences and similarities between the prepared resins were determined by FTIR spectroscopy. Results obtained were discussed according to the requirements for adhesives utilization in plywood manufacture, and the optimum operating conditions were selected. Infrared spectra of lignin-based phenol formaldehyde (LPF) resins showed structural similarity with that of PF resin.

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