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BioResources
Ching, Y. C., Rahman, A., Ching, K. Y., Sukiman, N. L., and Cheng, H. C. (2015). "Preparation and characterization of polyvinyl alcohol-based composite reinforced with nanocellulose and nanosilica," BioRes. 10(2), 3364-3377.

Abstract

This work reported the thermomechanical and morphological properties of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanocomposites reinforced with nanosilica and oil palm empty fruit bunches derived nanocellulose. The nanocomposites were characterized by mechanical, thermal, XRD, optical, and morphological studies. Uniformity dispersion of the nanofillers at a 3 wt% concentration has been shown by scanning electron microscopy, whereas the changes in crystallinity were demonstrated by X-ray diffraction analysis. Addition of nanosilica resulted in increased thermal stability of PVA/nanocellulose composites due to the reduction in mobility of the matrix molecules. Visible light transmission showed that the addition of 0.5 wt% nanosilica only slightly reduced the light transmission of PVA/nanocellulose composites with 3 wt% nanocellulose. The addition of a small concentration of nanosilica successfully improved the tensile and modulus properties of PVA/nanocellulose composite films. The increases in tensile strength and thermal stability were evidence of a nanosilica contribution in PVA/nanocellulose composites, inducing reinforcement, as detected by the thermomechanical properties.
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