The aim of this paper was to enhance paper strength in NaOH/thiourea aqueous solution at room temperature. Paper from cotton pulp was saturated with room temperature NaOH/thiourea aqueous solution and placed at a fixed temperature (8, 15, and 20 °C) for a period of time (1 h, 2 h, 4 h, and 6 h). The morphology, X-ray diffraction (XRD), mechanical properties, and density of paper were characterized. The results indicated the paper was self-reinforced. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photographs indicated that the structure of the treated papers was increasingly compact with decreasing temperature. The XRD results showed that the crystallinity degree of the paper decreased from 80.0% to 60.0%. The stress at break of the treated papers increased by more than fivefold. The wet tensile strength of the treated papers increased remarkably.