AbstractThe feasibility of using lignocellulosic biomass as a source for preparing carbon adsorbents has received rigorous attention over the last few decades. Many studies have discussed its great potential as a renewable feedstock for preparation of carbonaceous adsorbent materials. This review paper provides an overview of the different types of carbonization techniques that so far have been applied to convert lignocellulosic biomass to carbon adsorbents. The effects of various process parameters on the conventional pyrolysis process are reviewed. The paper focuses on the mechanism for the formation of carbons, its wide variety of applications for waste effluents, and the regeneration techniques so far adopted by researchers. Low-cost carbons derived from lignocellulosic biomass have demonstrated excellent capabilities for the removal of organic and inorganic contaminants, including some pharmaceutical compounds, from the waste aqueous stream.