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BioResources
Wang, Z., Bo, N., Liu, Y., Yang, G., Liu, Y., and Zhao, Y. (2013). "Preparation of lignin-based anion exchangers and their utilization for nitrate removal," BioRes. 8(3), 3505-3517.

Abstract

Lignin-based anion exchangers (L-AE) were prepared by reacting lignin with epichlorohydrin and triethylamine in the presence of N,N-dimethylformamide and a catalyst. A multi-factor and multi-level orthogonal design of experiment was carried out in order to obtain the optimal conditions for the preparation of lignin-based anion exchangers. The optimized parameters including the dosages of catalysts, the amounts of triethylamine, graft reaction time, and the graft reaction temperature were defined. Data of nitrate removal and yield were used as performance indicators of the products prepared. The results indicated that the reaction temperature was the primary factor. The optimal synthesis reaction parameters were lignin:pyridine:triethylamine = 2 g:3 mL:12 mL. The optimal experimental temperature was 70 °C, and the reaction time was 7 h. The yield was 188.6% and the nitrate removal was 91.2%. Under some reaction conditions, the yields were found greater than 100%; this was due to the grafted mass from epoxidation with epichlorohydrin and quaternization (through the reaction of epoxide with triethylamine).
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