NC State
BioResources
Bo, N., and Wang, Z. (2014). "Preparation of lignin-based quaternary amine anion exchangers in NaOH solutions and their characteristics," BioRes. 9(2), 2835-2846.

Abstract

A lignin-based quaternary amine anion exchanger (LQAE) modified from raw lignin was synthesized after the reaction with epichlorohydrin and triethylamine using an NaOH solution as the basic solvent. The reaction mechanism of the experiment was explored and validated. Effect of reaction conditions on the preparation of LQAE were investigated. The performance of the LQAE was characterized by FTIR, SEM, and elemental analysis. The adsorption rate and yield were the measurable indicators, and when the NaOH concentration was 6 M, the nitrate adsorption capacity and the yield were 36.7 mg nitrate/g anion exchanger lignin and 123.6%, respectively.
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