AbstractSugarcane bagasse (SCB) is an important by-product from the sucro-alcohol industry in Brazil, and it is a convenient raw material for new applications. In this study, SCB was modified with thiophosphoryl chloride in order to attach the P=S chelating moiety to the fibers, aiming at the production of a new material (SCB-F) with increased cadmium adsorption capacity. The SCB-F was characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectrometry, thermogravimetry coupled to mass spectrometry, and acid-base titration. Adsorption isotherms for Cd(II) revealed a maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) of 74 mg/g, over 60 times higher than that of unmodified SCB. SCB-F thus represents a potentially interesting product for the decontamination of water bodies or effluents polluted with heavy metals.