NC State
Xian, X., Wu, S., Wei, W., and Zhang, F. (2021). "Pretreatment of kraft lignin by deep eutectic solvent and its utilization in preparation of lignin-based phenolic formaldehyde adhesive," BioResources 16(2), 3103-3120.


To improve the reactive sites of kraft technical lignin, a deep eutectic solvent (DES) composed of ZnCl2 / lactic acid was used to pretreat kraft lignin from coniferous wood. The modified and unmodified lignin were used to replace different proportions of phenol (50%, 60%, and 70%) to prepare the lignin-phenol-formaldehyde (LPF) adhesive. The phenolic hydroxyl content of DES-treated lignin increased from 3.12 wt% to 3.93 wt% and methoxy content decreased from 11.83 wt% to 6.64 wt% under optimized experimental conditions. The bond strength of LPF adhesive prepared by DES reagent activated lignin was higher than that of the control sample. When the substitution degree of modified lignin for phenol reached 70%, the bond strength of the plywood prepared by the DES-pretreated lignin was 0.79 MPa and the free formaldehyde content was 0.28%, which met the requirements of the Chinese national standard GB/T 9846 (2015). However, the viscosity was higher than the control sample, and results indicate that DES reagent modification cannot improve the viscosity of LPF resin.

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