To efficiently and economically utilize a wood-plastic biocomposite, an eco-friendly biocomposite was prepared using modified poplar fiber and polylactic acid (PLA) via 3D printing technology for the first time. First, the effects of poplar fiber (0, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9%) on the mechanical and rheological properties of the printed biocomposites were investigated. Subsequently, the printing parameters, including printing temperature, speed, and layer thickness, were optimized to obtain the biocomposite with superior properties. Finally, four printing orientations were applied to the biocomposite based on the optimized printing parameters to study the effect of filament orientation on the properties of the biocomposite. Favorable printability and mechanical properties of the biocomposite were obtained at 5% poplar fiber. The optimal printing temperature of 220 °C, speed of 40 mm/s, and layer thickness of 0.2 mm were obtained to produce the desired mechanical properties of the biocomposite with the printing orientation in a longitudinal stripe. However, the printing parameters should be chosen according to the applications, where different physical and mechanical properties are needed to achieve efficient and economical utilization of the biocomposites.