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Park, J., Horvath, L., and Bush, R. J. (2016). "Process methods and levels of automation of wood pallet repair in the United States," BioRes. 11(3), 6822-6835.


This study documented the current status of wood pallet repair in the United States by identifying the types of processing and equipment usage in repair operations from an automation perspective. The wood pallet repair firms included in the study received an average of approximately 1.28 million cores (i.e., used pallets) for recovery in 2012. A majority of the cores received were stringer-style pallets. The most common pallet size received and repaired was 48 x 40 inch. The most commonly used stringer repair method was the application of companion stringers. It was found that most firms utilized high levels of manual labor, with limited machinery support. The board trimming and pallet sorting/stacking processes had the highest level of automation, while the inspection, nailing, and painting processes utilized manual labor.

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