AbstractCationic rosin has many uses in papermaking; however, its performance as an internal sizing agent differs depending on the circumstance, especially in the recycling of pulps. In this study, a comprehensive laboratory approach was used to investigate the process variables affecting the cationic rosin application in the paper recycling process. In this respect, four levels of alum (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0%) and four levels of cationic rosin (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0%) were considered to find the best alum/cationic rosin combination in acidic conditions (pH 5). After considering all aspects of the paper, such as the mechanical properties (tensile, burst, and tear indices), wet resistance (Cobb test and dynamic contact angle test), and chemical usage (economically and environmentally-friendly procedures), the 1.0% alum and 0.5% cationic rosin levels were selected for optimum performance. This research also showed that the combined effect of alum with cationic rosin was favorable. Moreover, the sequence of alum and cationic rosin addition, which is a challenge in paper mills, also should be considered. The results indicated that the addition of cationic rosin after alum obtained the best mechanical and wet resistance results. In addition, the results showed that both acidic and neutral pH were acceptable in this sizing process.