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Shaari Balakrishna, N., Ismail, H., and Othman, N. (2013). "Processing, mechanical, and thermal properties of polypropylene/rattan powder/talc hybrid composites," BioRes. 8(4), 6409-6423.


Talc was incorporated as filler alongside rattan powder in polypropylene (PP) matrix to produce a hybrid composite. 20 phr of rattan powder was used for all samples. Talc filler loadings were varied from 0 to 10 phr. The composite was manufactured using a Polydrive Thermo Haake internal mixer, which provided processing characteristics for the composite. Peak and stabilization torques gradually increased with increasing talc filler loading. Tensile properties of the hybrid composites showed an increase in tensile modulus and a decline in elongation at break with increasing talc loading. The tensile strength was enhanced with the addition of talc up to a loading of 4 phr and then decreased with further talc filler loading. A water absorption test was carried out, whereby the water uptake of the hybrid composites was reduced with higher talc filler loading. Thermal degradation of the composites was analyzed by studying thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) thermograms and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) curves, which showed improvement in the thermal stability of the composite with higher talc content. The morphological studies carried out on tensile-fractured surfaces of the hybrid composites explained the enhancement and deterioration of tensile properties with regard to different filler loadings.
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