Volatile aroma compounds in Dendrocalamus latiflorus shoots were extracted using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and then heated at various temperatures and for various durations. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses showed that frozen D. latiflorus shoots at ambient temperature contain 18 volatile aroma compounds, with limonene and 2-pentyl furan being the major components. Limonene has the fragrance of lemon and citrus fruits, while 2-pentyl furan gives off the scent of flowers and fruits. Additionally, heating temperature had a significant influence on the volatile aroma compounds. Some, including limonene, 2-pentyl furan and n-hexanal, showed marked decrement in content and vaporized almost completely at 100 C, while others, including n-heneicosane and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, showed pronounced increase in relative contents. Furthermore, there was a positive relationship between n-heneicosane content and heating duration but a negative relationship between 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde content and heating duration, revealing substantial effects of heating duration on the volatile aroma compounds of D. latiflorus shoots.