NC State
Zainuddin, Z., Wan Daud, W. R., Ong, P., and Shafie, A. (2012). "Pulp and paper from oil palm fronds: Wavelet neural networks modeling of soda-ethanol pulping," BioRes. 7(4), 5781-5793.


Wavelet neural networks (WNNs) were used to investigate the influence of operational variables in the soda-ethanol pulping of oil palm fronds (viz. NaOH concentration (10-30%), ethanol concentration (15-75%), cooking temperature (150-190 ºC), and time (60-180 min)) on the resulting pulp and paper properties (viz. screened yield, kappa number, tensile index, and tear index). Performance assessments demonstrated the predictive capability of WNNs, in that the experimental results of the dependent variables with error less than 6% were reproduced, while satisfactory R-squared values were obtained. It thus corroborated the good fit of the WNNs model for simulating the soda-ethanol pulping process for oil palm fronds.
Download PDF